Year 2019, Volume 22 , Issue 2, Pages 306 - 314 2019-04-30

Effect of Different Nitrogen Top Dressing Strategies on Rain-fed Wheat Yields Grown in a Soil Dominant with Expanding Clay Minerals
Genişleyebilir Killerin Baskın Olduğu Kurak Alanlarda Buğdayda Farklı Üst Gübre Kullanımlarının Araştırılması

Kadir YILMAZ [1] , Hüseyin DİKİCİ [2] , Ömer Faruk DEMİR [3] , Abdurrahman ŞİMŞEK [4] , Serdar SOLAK [5] , Yaşam KENGER [6] , Zehra AĞAOĞLU [7]


In this study, it was proposed that nitrogen demands of rainfed wheat plants may be met by the release of ammonium fixed in 2:1 clay minerals.  In order to do that single top dressing of nitrogen given in the forms of urea or ammonium in the early stage of plant growth and two split applications of N as ammonium-nitrate were compared in rain-fed wheat plants. As a result of the study, grain yields obtained from single applications of urea and ammonium were found to be higher than two split applications of ammonium nitrate. Thousand-grain weight was found to be the highest with the ammonium sulfate application and the lowest with the ammonium nitrate application. It was seen that applying nitrogen fertilizers to the soil which is dominant with expanding smectite and vermiculate clay minerals in the forms of urea and ammonium at once in the early stage is more effective than two split applications as ammonium nitrate.

Bu çalışmada, kurak koşullarda yetiştirilen buğdayda geç evrede verilen ikinci üst gübre azotunun, bitkiye erken evrede amonyum ve üre formunda verilerek, azotun 2:1 tipi kil mineralleri tarafından fiksasyonu ile kurak dönemde bitkinin azot ihtiyacının toprakta fikse edilen amonyum formundaki azotun serbestlenmesi ile karşılanması amaçlanmıştır. Araştırma sonucunda, üre ve amonyum formunda tek sefer azot uygulamasındaki tane veriminin, iki evrede verilen amonyum nitrat uygulamasından daha yüksek olduğu, bin dane ağırlığının amonyum sülfat uygulamasında en yüksek, amonyum nitrat uygulamasında en düşük olduğu bulunmuştur. Sonuç olarak, azotlu gübrelerin kurak alanlarda smektit ve vermikülitce baskın topraklarda, erken dönemde tek seferde üre veya amonyum formunda toprağa verilmesinin, iki defada amonyum nitrat azotu formunda verilmesinden daha etkili olduğu görülmüştür.

  • Adiloğlu A 1989. Trakya Bölgesi Asit Topraklarına Kireç İlavesinin Bazı Makro Besin Elementlerinin Elverişliliğine Etkisi Üzerinde Bir Araştırma. Trakya Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü Toprak Ana Bilim Dalı, Yüksek Lisans Tezi.. Tekirdağ, s. 20.
  • Allison FE, Doetsch JH, Roller EM 1951. Ammonium fixation and availability in Harpster clay loam. Soil Sci. 72:181–200.
  • Allison FE, Doetsch JH, Roller EM, 1953. Availability of fixed ammonium in soils containing different clay minerals. Soil Sci. 75:373–381.
  • Axley JH, Legg JO, 1960. Ammonium fixation in soils and the influence of potassium on nitrogen availability from nitrate and ammonium sources. Soil Sci. 90:151–156.
  • Baethgen WE, Alley MM 1987. Non-exchangeable ammonium nitrogen contribution to plant available nitrogen. Soil Sci Soc Am J 51:110–115.
  • Black CA 1965. Methods of Analysis Agreon., No: 9, Ame. Soc. Agr. , MadisonWisconsin. USA.
  • Black AS, Waring SA 1972. Ammonium fixation and availability in some cereal producing soils of Queensland. Aust. J. Soil Res. 10:197–207
  • Bouyoucus GJ 1951. A Recalibration of The Hydrometer For Making Mechanical Analysis of Soils, Argon. Jour., 43:434-438.
  • Dama AY 2009. Farklı Kil Minerali İçeriğine Sahip Topraklarda Yetiştirilen Ispanak Bitkisinin Gelişimine Bazalt Tüfünün Etkisi (Yüksek Lisans Tezi). Kahramanmaraş Sütçü İmam Üniv. Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü Toprak Ana Bilim Dalı, Kahramanmaraş.
  • Doram DR, Evans LJ 1983. Native fixed ammonium and fixation of added ammonium in relation to clay mineralogy in some Ontario soils. Can J Soil Sci. 63:631–639
  • Dou H, Steffens D 1995. Recovery of 15N labelled urea as affected by fixation of ammonium by clay minerals. Z Pflanzenernahr Bodenkd 158:351–354
  • Feigin A, Yaalon DH, 1974. Non-exchangeable ammonium in soils of Israel and its relation to clay and parent material. J .Soil Sci. 25:384–397.
  • Frye WW, Hutcheson TB 1981. Release of NH4+ in soils by oven drying. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J.45:889–892.
  • Guo PC, Bogring J, Scherer HW 1983. Verhalten von Dünger-NH4+ in Böden unterschiedlicher tonmineralischer Zusammensetzung. Z Pflanzenernahr Bodenkd 146:752–757.
  • Gülçur F 1974. Toprağın Fiziksel ve Kimyasal Analiz Metodları, İstanbul Üniversitesi Orman Fakültesi Yayınları, İ. Ü. Yayın No: 1970, Yayın No: 201, Kutulmuş Matbaası, İstanbul.
  • Hays LW 1988. Statistics, Holt Rinehart and Winston, Inc., London, Fourth Edition, P-544.
  • Helmke PA, Sparks DL 1996. Lithium, Sodium, Potassium, Rubidium, and Calcium, in Sparks,D.L., (Ed) Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 3, Chemical Methods, SSSA Book Series Number 5, SSSA., Madison,WI, s. 551–574.
  • Hinman WC 1966. Ammonium fixation in relation to exchangeable K and organic matter content in two Saskatchewan soils. Can J. Soil Sci. 46:223–225.
  • Jackson ML 1969. Soil Chemical Analysis, Advanced Course, 2nd ed. Published by The Author, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 8955.
  • Juang TC 1990. Ammonium fixation as affected by temperature and drying-wetting effect in Taiwan soils. Proc Natl Sci Counc Repub China Part B Life Sci. 14:151–158.
  • Juang TC, Wang MK, Chen HJ, Tan CC 2001. Ammonium fixation by surface soils and clays. Soil Sci. 166:345–352.
  • Kittrick JA 1966. Forces involved in ion fixation by vermiculite. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 30:801–803.
  • Kowalenko GG, Ross GJ 1980. Studies on the dynamics of 'recently' clayfixed NH] using lSN. Can. J. Soil Sci. 60 (1):61-70.
  • Kudeyarov VN 1981. Mobility of fixed ammonium in soil. In: Clark FE, Rosswall T (eds) Terrestrial nitrogen cycles. Ecol Bull (Stockholm) 33:281–290.
  • Kuo S 1996. Phosphorus in D.L. Sparks (Ed) Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 3, Chemical Methods, SSSA Book Series Number 5, SSSA., Madison,WI, s. 869–921.
  • Lavkor I 2006. Osmaniye İli ve Çevresinde Bulunan Farklı Ana Materyaller Üzerinde Oluşan Topraklarda, Toprak Verimliliği-Bitki Besleme İlişkilerinin Belirlenmesi. Çukurova Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü Toprak Ana Bilim Dalı Yüksek Lisans Tezi. Adana, s. 44-51.
  • Liu YL, Zhang B, Li CL, Hu F, Velde B 2008. Long-term fertilization influences on clay mineral composition and ammonium adsorption in rice paddy soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 72:1580–1590.
  • Lindsay WL, Norvel WA 1978. Development of DTPA soil test for Zn, Fe, Mn and Cu. Soil Sci. Amer. J. 42 (3):421-28.
  • Lu CY, Zhang XD, Chen X, Shi Y, Ma J, Zhao MQ 2010. Fixation of labelled (15NH4)2SO4 and its subsequent release in black soil of Northeast China over consecutive crop cultivation. Soil Tillage Res. 106:329–334.
  • Lutz JA 1966. Ammonium and potassium fixation and release in selected soils of southeastern United States. Soil Sci. 102:366–372.
  • Martin AE, Gilkes RJ, Skjemstad JO 1970. Fixed ammonium in soils developed on some Queensland phyllites and its relation to weathering. Aust. J. Soil Res. 8:71-80.
  • Mengel K, Scherer HW 1981. Release of nonexchangeable (fixed) soil ammonium under field conditions during the growing season. Soil Sci. 131:226–232.
  • MGM 2018. Kahramanmaraş Meteoroloji İl Müdürlüğü aylık ortalama yağış ve sıcaklık verileri, 2018.
  • Moyano A, Gallardo JF 1988. Fixed ammonium determination in some clay soils. Commun. Soil Sci.Plant Anal 19:225–238.
  • Nieder R, Benbi DK, Scherer HW 2011. Fixation and defixation of ammonium in soils: A review. Biol. Fertil. Soils 47:1-14.
  • Niederbudde EA 1983. Das Tonmineral-NH4+, seine Stellung zu anderen N-Bindungsformen sowie seine Bewertung für NImmobilisierung und -Mobilisierung in Böden. Kali-Briefe (Büntehof) 16:365–378.
  • Nelson DW, Sommers LE 1996. Total Carbon, Organic Carbon, and Organic Matter. In D.L. Sparks (Ed) Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 3, Chemical Methods, SSSA Book Series Number 5, SSSA., Madison,WI, s. 961-1011.
  • Nommik H 1965. Ammonium fixation and other reactions involving non-enzymatic immobilization of mineral nitrogen in soils. In: Bartholomew WV, Clark FE (eds), Soil nitrogen. Monograph, American Society of Agronomy 10:198–258.
  • Nommik H 1981. Fixation and biological availability of ammonium in soil clay minerals. Ecol. Bull. (Stockholm) 33:273–279.
  • Nommik H, Vahtras K 1982. Retention and fixation of ammonium and ammonia in soils. In: Stevenson FJ (ed.) Nitrogen in agricultural soils. Agronomy 22:123–171.
  • Opuwaribo E, Odu CTI 1974. Fixed ammonium in Nigerian soils I. Selection of a method and amounts of native fixed ammonium. J. Soil Sci. 25:256–264.
  • Osborne GJ 1976. The extraction and definition of nonexchangeable or fixed ammonium in some soils from southern New South Wales. Aust J Soil Res 14:373–380
  • SSJA 1984. Glossary of soil science terms. Soil Sci Soc Am, Madison, Wisconsin.
  • Page JB, Baver LO 1939. Ionic size in relation to fixation of cations by colloidal clay. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc. 4: 150-155.
  • Preston CM 1982. The availability of residual fertilizer nitrogen immobilized as clay-fixed ammonium and organic nitrogen. Can. J. Soil Sci. 62:479–486.
  • Sağlam MT 1974. Erzurum, Hasankale ve Erzincan Ovası topraklarında amonyum fiksasyonu, amonyum fiksasyonu ile potasyum arasındaki bazı ilişkiler, mineralize olan nitrojen ve nitrojen kayıpları üzerine bir araştırma. Atatürk Üniversitezi, Ziraat Fakültesi (Basılmamış), Erzurum.
  • Scherer HW 1984. Beziehung zwischen dem Stickstoff-Entzug der Pflanzen und der Abnahme von spezifisch gebundenem NH4-N im Boden. Z. Pflanzenern~thr Bodenk 147:29-36.
  • Scherer HW 1993. Dynamics and availability of the nonexchangeable NH4+-N. A review. Eur. J. Agron. 2:149–160.
  • Scherer HW 1987. Zur Verfügbarkeit von Zwischenschicht- Ammonium der Tonminerale. Landwirtsch Forsch 40:259–276.
  • Scherer HW, Mengel K 1986. Importance of soil type on the release of nonexchangeable NH4+ and availability of fertilizer NH4 + and fertilizer NO3-. Fertil. Res. 8:249–258.
  • Sowden FJ, Maclean AA, Ross GJ 1978. Native clay fixed ammonium content and the fixation of added ammonium of some soils of Eastern Canada. Can, J. Soil Sci. 58:27–38.
  • Sparks DL, Blevins RL, Bailey HH, Barnhisel RI 1979. Relationship of ammonium nitrogen distribution to mineralogy in a Hapludalf soil. Soil Sci Soc Am J 43:786–789.
  • Steffens D, Sparks DL 1999. Effect of residence time on the kinetics of nonexchangeable ammonium release from illite and vermiculite. J. Plant Nutr. Soil Sci. 162:599–604.
  • Sucha V, Elsass F, Eberl D, Kuchta L, Madejova J, Gate W, Komadel P 1998.Hydrothermal synthesis of ammonium illite. Ame Miner 83: 58–67.
  • Sucha V, Sirahova V 1991. Potassium and ammonium fixation in smectites by wetting and drying clays. Clay Miner 39: 556–559.
  • Walsh LM, Murdock JT 1963. Recovery of fixed ammonium by corn in greenhouse studies. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 27,200-20.
  • Uçar R 2016. Bingöl İlinden Toplanmış Yerel Kışlık Ekmeklik Buğday (Triticum aestivum L.) Popülasyonlarından Seçilen Saf Hatların Kalite Özellikleri ve Bazı Mikro Element İçerikleri Bakımından Değerlendirilmesi (Yüksek Lisans Tezi). Bingöl Üniv. Fen Bilimleri Enst. Tarla Bitkileri Anabilim Dalı, 56s Bingöl.
  • Van Praag HJ, Fischer V, Riga A 1980. Fate of fertilizer nitrogen applied to winter wheat as Na15NO3 and (15NH4)2SO4 studied in microplots through a four-course rotation:2. Fixed ammonium turn-over and nitrogen reversion. Soil Sci. 130:100–105.
  • Velde B, Barré P 2010. Soils, Plants and Clay Minerals. Role of Clay Minerals in Critical Nutrient Exchange: Potassium and Ammonium, syf. 188-189.
  • Yılmaz K 1990. Harran Ovası Topraklarının Mineralojik Karakterizasyonları (Doktora Tezi), Ç. Ü. Fen Bilimleri Ens Toprak Ana Bilim Dalı., 89s Adana.
  • Yılmaz K, Sayın M 1998. Çukurova Bölgesi Yaygın Toprak Serilerinde Çarpım Faktörü Yöntemi ile Kantitatif Kil Analizi, KSÜ Fen ve Mühendislik Dergisi 2(1): 36-46.
Primary Language tr
Subjects Science
Journal Section RESEARCH ARTICLE
Authors

Orcid: 0000-0002-0539-4534
Author: Kadir YILMAZ (Primary Author)
Institution: KAHRAMANMARAŞ SÜTÇÜ İMAM ÜNİVERSİTESİ, ZİRAAT FAKÜLTESİ
Country: Turkey


Orcid: 0000-0002-1335-4380
Author: Hüseyin DİKİCİ
Institution: KAHRAMANMARAŞ SÜTÇÜ İMAM ÜNİVERSİTESİ, ZİRAAT FAKÜLTESİ
Country: Turkey


Orcid: 0000-0002-0636-5225
Author: Ömer Faruk DEMİR
Institution: KAHRAMANMARAŞ SÜTÇÜ İMAM ÜNİVERSİTESİ, ZİRAAT FAKÜLTESİ
Country: Turkey


Orcid: 0000-0001-5844-8471
Author: Abdurrahman ŞİMŞEK
Institution: KAHRAMANMARAŞ SÜTÇÜ İMAM ÜNİVERSİTESİ, ZİRAAT FAKÜLTESİ
Country: Turkey


Orcid: 0000-0003-0338-2190
Author: Serdar SOLAK
Institution: KAHRAMANMARAŞ SÜTÇÜ İMAM ÜNİVERSİTESİ, ZİRAAT FAKÜLTESİ
Country: Turkey


Orcid: 0000-0002-5202-3269
Author: Yaşam KENGER
Institution: KAHRAMANMARAŞ SÜTÇÜ İMAM ÜNİVERSİTESİ, ZİRAAT FAKÜLTESİ
Country: Turkey


Orcid: 0000-0001-8107-8720
Author: Zehra AĞAOĞLU
Institution: KAHRAMANMARAŞ SÜTÇÜ İMAM ÜNİVERSİTESİ, ZİRAAT FAKÜLTESİ
Country: Turkey


Dates

Application Date : October 24, 2018
Acceptance Date : January 15, 2019
Publication Date : April 30, 2019

APA Yılmaz, K , Di̇ki̇ci̇, H , Demi̇r, Ö , Şi̇mşek, A , Solak, S , Kenger, Y , Ağaoğlu, Z . (2019). Genişleyebilir Killerin Baskın Olduğu Kurak Alanlarda Buğdayda Farklı Üst Gübre Kullanımlarının Araştırılması . Kahramanmaraş Sütçü İmam Üniversitesi Tarım ve Doğa Dergisi , 22 (2) , 306-314 . DOI: 10.18016/ksutarimdoga.vi.474168