Year 2019, Volume 22 , Issue 4, Pages 650 - 658 2019-08-31

Assessment of Cytotoxic and Genotoxic Effects of L-Carnitine in Allium cepa Root Tip Assay
L- Karnitinin Sitotoksik ve Genotoksik Etkilerinin Allium cepa Kök Ucu Testi ile Değerlendirilmesi

Siğnem ÖNEY-BİROL [1] , Fatma GÜNDÜZ [2]

L-carnitine is an endogenous molecule that is naturally synthesized and involved in energy metabolism of the organism. In this study, it was aimed to reveal potential genotoxic effects of l-carnitine using Allium cepa L. (onion) test. To investigate effects of different doses of l-carnitine (100, 250, 500, 750, 1000, 1250 mg/L) on mitotic activity and chromosome structure, 1250 (0.22), 1000 (0.25) and 250 (0.21) mg/L of l-carnitine doses stimulated mitotic activity compared to the control group (0 mg/L l-carnitine) (0.20), however, it was determined that 500 mg/L l-carnitine concentration (0.11) inhibited cell division. Genotoxic effect of l-carnitine were compared with all studied concentrations and although there were no chromosome aberrations in the control group of onion meristematic cells, numerious chromosome aberations were found in all application groups of l-carnitine concentrations such as disorderly prophase, micronucleus, fault polarization, lagging chromosomes, anaphase and/or telophase bridges and denucleated cells. The results presented in this study showed that dose of 1000 mg/L of l-carnitine, which is frequently used in diets as a dietery supplement, stimulated mitotic activity via increasing cell division and reduced genotoxic damage on chromosomes, however 500 mg/L of l-carnitine dose had a toxic effect on cells and increased aberration rates on chromosome structure.  

L-karnitin organizma için enerji metabolizmasında görevli doğal olarak sentezlenen endojen bir moleküldür. Bu çalışmada, Allium cepa L. (soğan) testi ile l-karnitinin muhtemel genotoksik etkilerini ortaya koymak amaçlanmıştır. Farklı dozlarda (100, 250, 500, 750, 1000, 1250 mg/L) l-karnitinin mitotik aktivite ve kromozom davranışları üzerine etkilerine dair yapılan çalışmada kontrol grubuna (0 mg/L l-karnitin) (0.20) oranla 1250 (0.22), 1000 (0.25) ve 250 (0.21) mg/L l-karnitin uygulamasının mitotik aktiviteyi teşvik ettiği, 500 (0.11) mg/L l-karnitin uygulamasının ise hücre bölünmesini baskıladığı belirlenmiştir. L-karnitinin genotoksik etkisi bakımından, kontrol grubu soğan kök meristematik hücrelerinde kromozom aberasyonlarına rastlanmazken, tüm uygulama gruplarında farklı tipte (düzensiz profaz, mikronukleus, yanlış kutuplaşma, geri kalmış kromozomlar, anafaz ve telofaz köprüsü, çift nukleuslu hücre) ve sayıda anormal kromozomlara rastlanmıştır. Bu çalışmada ortaya konulan sonuçlar, gıda takviyesi olarak sıklıkla tüketilen l-karnitinin 1000 mg/L’lik dozunun mitotik aktiviteyi teşvik etmek suretiyle hücre bölünmesini artırdığı ve kromozomlar üzerindeki genotoksik hasarı indirgemesine rağmen 500 mg/L’lik l-karnitin dozunun hücrelerde toksik etkiye sahip olduğu ve kromozom yapısı üzerinde aberasyonların oranını artırdığını göstermiştir.

  • Akinboro A, Bakare AA 2007. Cytotoxic And Genotoxic Effects Of Aqueous Extracts Of Five Medicinal Plants On Allium cepa Linn. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 112(3):470-475.
  • Angelidis AS, Smith GM 2003. Role Of The Glycine Betaine And Carnitine Transporters In Adaptation of Listeria Monocytogenes To Chill Stress In Defined Medium. Applied Environmental Microbiology, 69: 7492-7498.
  • Arslan C 2006. L-Carnitine and Its Uses A Feed Additive in Poultry Feding A Review. Revue de Médicine Véterinaire, 157(3): 134-142.
  • Baderna D, Maggioni S, Boriani E, Gemma S, Molteni M, Lombardo A, Colombo A, Bordonali S, Rotella G, Lodi M, Benfenati E 2011. A Combined Approach to Investigate The Toxicity Of An Industrial Landfill’s Leachate: Chemical Analyses, Risk Assessment And In Vitro Assays. Environmental Research, 111(4): 603-613.
  • Barberio A, Voltolini JC, Mello MLS 2011. Standardization of Bulb and Root Sample Sizes For The Allium cepa Test. Ecotoxicology, 2011(20): 927-935. doi: 10.1007/s10646-011-0602-8.
  • Cabrera GL, Rodriguez DMG 1999. Genotoxicity of Soil From Farmland Irrigated With Wastewater Using Three plant Bioassays. Mutation Research Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis, 426: 211-214.
  • Campos JMS, Viccini LF, Andrade LF, Davide LC, Rodrigues GS 2009. Genetic Toxicology And Environmental Mutagenesis In Allelopathic Interactions. (Plant Bioassays, Studium Press, Houston: Eds. Narwal SS, Sampietro DA, Catalán, CAN, Vattuone MA, Politycka B) 1e344.
  • Carter HE, Bhattacharya PK, Weidman KR, Fraenkel G 1952. Chemical Studies on Vitamin BT-Isolation And Characterization As Carnitine. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 38: 405-416.
  • Chen W, Huang YC, Shultz TD 1998. Urinary, Plasma, and Erythrocyte Carnitine Concentrations During Transition To A Lactoovovegetarian Diet With Vitamin B-6 Depletion And Repletion in Young Adult Women. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 67: 221-230.
  • Çitil M 2002. Veteriner Hekimlikte Karnitin. Kafkas Üniv. Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi, 8 (1): 77-82.
  • Di Giacomo C, Latteri F, Fichera C, Sorrenti V, Campisi A, Castorina C, Russo A, Pinturo R, Vanella A 1993. Effect Of Acetyl L- Carnitine On Lipid Peroxidation And Xanthine Oxidase Activity in Ratskeletal Muscle. Neurochemical Research, 18: 1157-1162.
  • Duncan DB 1955. Multiple Range and Multiple F Tests. Biometrics, 11:1
  • Firbas P, Amon T 2013. Allium Chromosome Aberration Test for Evaluation Effect of Cleaning Municipal Water With Constructed Wetland (CW) In Sveti Tomaž, Slovenia. Journal of Bioremediation and Biodegradation, 4: 189-193. doi:10.4172/2155-6199.1000189
  • Fiskesjö G 1995. Allium test: In Vitro Toxicity Testing Protocols. Methods in Molecular Biology, 43: 119-127.
  • Fox DP 1969. Some Characteristics of The Cold Hydrolysis Technique For Staining Plant Tissues By The Feulgen Reaction. J of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry, 17(4): 266–272.
  • Franken J, Bauer FF 2010. Carnitine Supplementation Has Protective And Detrimental Effects In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae That Are Genetically Mediated. FEMS Yeast Research, 10: 270–281. doi: 10.1111/j.1567-1364.2010.00610.x
  • Gadano A, Gurni A, López P, Ferraro G, Carballo M 2002. In Vitro Genotoxic Evaluation Of The Medicinal Plant Chenopodium ambrosioides L. Journal of Ethonopharmacology, 81: 11-16.
  • Golzar Adabi SH, Cooper RG, Ceylan N, Çorduk M 2011. L-Carnitine And Its Functional Effects Inpoultry Nutrition. Worlds Poultry Science Journal, 67: 277-288.
  • Grant WF 1978. Chromosome Aberrations In Plants As A Monitoring System. Environmental Health Perspectives, 22: 37-43
  • Grant WF 1994. The Present Status of Higher Plant Bioassays For Detection of Environmental Mutagens. Mutation Research, 310: 175-185.
  • Grant WF 1999. Higher Plant Assays For The Detection of Chromosomal Aberrations And Gene Mutation: A Brief Historical Background On Their Use For Screening And Monitoring Environmental Chemicals. Mutation Research, 426: 107-112.
  • Gulewitsch W, Krimberg R 1905. On Carnitine. Hoppe-Seyler's Zeitschrift Fur Physiologische Chemie, 45: 326-330, 10.1161/ATVBAHA.114.303252
  • IBM Corp. Released 2013. IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 22.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.
  • Ivanova E, Staikova T, Velcheva I, Kostadinovn K 2003. Somatostatic Effect of Heavy Metal Contaminated Waters In The Region of The Town Of Panagjurishte, Bulgaria. Journal of Environmental Protection, 4(2): 284-287.
  • Kihlman BA 1977. Root Tips of Vicia faba For The Study Of The Induction Of Chromosomal Aberrations. (Handbook of mutagenicity test procedures, Amsterdam, New York, Oxford: Elsevier scientific publishing company: Eds. Kilbey BJ, Legator M, Nichols W, Ramel C), 389-400.
  • Kopec B, Fritz IB 1973. Comparison Of Properties Of Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase I With Dose Of Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase II, And Prepations Of Antibodies To Carnitine Palmitoyltransferases. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 248: 4069-4079.
  • Kumar DS, Chakrabarty D, Verma AK, Banerji BK 2011. Gamma Ray Induced Chromosomal Aberrations And Enzyme Related Defense Mechanism In Allium cepa L., Caryologia, 64(4): 388-397.
  • Lehninger AL, Nelson DL, Cox MM 1993. Principles of Biochemistry. Yayın No: 2, New York, 1013s.
  • Leme DM, Marin-Morales MA 2009. Allium cepa Test In Environmental Monitoring: A Review On Its Application. Mutation Research, 682(1): 71-81.
  • Levan A 1938. The Effect of Colchicines On Root Mitoses in Allium. Hereditas, 24: 471-486.
  • Maluszynska J, Juchimiuk J 2005. Plant Genotoxicity: A Molecular Cytogenetic Approach In Plant Bioassays. Plant Genotoxicity, 56: 177-184.
  • Mercykutty VC, Stephen J 1980. Adriamycin Induced Genetic Toxicity As Demonstrated by Allium cepa Test. Cytologia 45(4):769-777.
  • Melone MAB, Valentino A, Margarucci S, Galderisi U, Giordano A, Peluso G 2018. The Carnitine System And Cancer Metabolic Plasticity. Cell Death Dis, http://doi:10.1038/s41419-018-0313-7.
  • Monograph 2005. L-Carnitine. Alternative Medicine Review, 10: 42-50.
  • Mroczkowska JE, Gala HJ, Nalecz MJ, Nalecz KA 1997. Evidence For An Asymmetrical Uptake Of L-Carnitine In The Blood–Brain Barrier in Vitro. Biochemistry and Biophysics Research Communication, 241: 127-131.
  • Nefic H, Musanovic J, Metovic A, Kurteshi K 2013. Chromosomal And Nuclear Alterations In Root Tip Cells of Allium cepa L. Induced By Alprazolam. Medical Archives, 67(6): 388-392.
  • Pacilli A, Calienni M, Margarucci S, D’Apolito M, Petillo O, Rocchi L, Pasquinelli G, Nicolai R, Koverech A, Calvani M, Peluso G, Montanaro L 2013. Carnitine-Acyltransferase System Inhibition, Cancer Cell Death, And Prevention Of Myc-Induced Lymphomagenesis. Journal of National Cancer Institute, 105(7):489-498.
  • Pathiratne A, Hemachandra CK, De Silva N 2015. Efficacy of Allium cepa Test System For Screening Cytotoxicity And Genotoxicity Of Industrial Effluents Originated From Different Industrial Activities. Environmental Monitoring Assess, 187(12) : 730.
  • Reznick AZ, Kagan VE, Ramsey R, Tsuchiya M, Khwaja S, Serbinova EA, Packer L 1992. Antiradical Effects In L-Propionyl Carnitine Protection of The Heart Against Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury: The Possible Role of Iron Chelation. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 296: 394-401.
  • Ribas GS, Vargas CR, Wajner M 2014. L-Carnitine Supplementation As A Potential Antioxidant Therapy For Inherited Neurometabolic Disorders. Gene, 533(2): 469-476.
  • Ricciardi MR, Mirabilii S, Allegretti M, Licchetta R, Calarco A, Torrisi MR, Foà R, Nicolai R, Peluso G, Tafuri A 2015. Targeting The Leukemia Cell Metabolism By The Cptia Inhibition: Functional Pre-Clinical Effects In Leukemias. Blood, 126:1925-1929.
  • Rojas E, Herrera, LA, Sordo, M, Gonsebatt, ME, Montero R, Ostrosky-Wegman P 1993. Mitotic Index and Cell Proliferation Kinetics For Identification of Antineoplastic Activity. Anticancer Drugs, 4(6): 637-640.
  • Santoro A, Lioi MB, Monfregola J, Salzano S, Rocchina Barbieri R, Ursini MV 2005. L-Carnitine Protects Mammalian Cells From Chromosome Aberrations But Not From Inhibition Of Cell Proliferation Induced By Hydrogen Peroxide. Mutation Research, 587:16-25.
  • Schulze E, Kirschner M 1986. Microtubule Dynamics In Interphase Cells. Journal of Cell Biology, 102(3):1020-1031
  • Sehgal R, Roy S, Kumar VL 2006. Evaluation of Cytotoxic Potential of Latex of Calotropis procera and Podophyllotoxin In Allium cepa. Biocell, 30(1): 9-13.
  • Sharma CB, Paneerselvan SR 1990. Genetic Toxicity of Pesticides In Higher Plant Systems. Critical Reviews in Plant Science, 9: 409-442.
  • Sharma S, Vig AP 2012. Genotoxicity of Atrazine, Avenoxan, Diuron And Quizalofop-P-Ethyl Herbicides Using The Allium cepa Root Chromosomal Aberration Assay. Terrestrial and Aquatic Environmental Toxicology, 6: 90-95.
  • Shug AL, Schmidt MJ, Golden GT, Fariello RT 1982. The Distribution And Role of Carnitine In The Mammalian Brain. Life Sciences, 31: 2869-2874.
  • Surai PF 2015. Antioxidant Action Of Carnitine: Molecular Mechanisms and Practical Applications. EC Veterinary Science, 2: 66-84.
  • Teixeira RO, Camparoto ML, Mantovani MS, Vicentini VEP 2003. Assessment Of Two Medicinal Plants, Psidium guajava L. and Achillea millefolium L., In-vitro And In-vivo Assays. Genetics and Molecular Biology, 26(4): 551-555.
  • Trushin M, Ratushnyak AY, Arkharova IA, Ratushnyak AA 2013. Genetic Alterations Revealed In Allium Cepa-Test System Under The Action Of Some Xenobiotics. World Applied Sciences Journal, 22: 342-344.
  • Vanella A, Russo A, Acquaviva R, CampisiA, Di Giacomo C, Sorrenti V, Barcellona ML 2000. L-Propionyl-Carnitine As Superoxide Scavenger, Antioxidant, And Cleavage Protector. Cell Biology and Toxicology, 16: 99-104.
  • Vaz FM, Wanders RJ 2002. Carnitine Biosynthesis In Mammals. Biochemical Journal, 361: 417-429.
  • Vicentini VEP, Camparoto ML, Teixeira RO, Mantovani MS 2001. Averrhoa carambola L., Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels and Cissus sicoydes L.: Medicinal Herbal Tea Effects on Vegetal And Animal Test Systems. Acta Scientiarum, 23: 593-598.
  • Zakzok FB, Hegazy HM, Yosef TA, Gomaa GM 2018. Mitigating Impact Of L-Carnitine Against Dimethoate Induction Of Hepatic And Testicular Genotoxicity In Rats: The Role Of Oxidative Stress. Toxin Reviews, http://doi:10.1080/ 15569543.2018. 1522645.
Primary Language tr
Subjects Science

Orcid: 0000-0002-0828-5739
Author: Siğnem ÖNEY-BİROL (Primary Author)
Country: Turkey

Orcid: 0000-0002-2642-8916
Author: Fatma GÜNDÜZ
Country: Turkey


Application Date : February 13, 2019
Acceptance Date : March 28, 2019
Publication Date : August 31, 2019

APA Öney-bi̇rol, S , Gündüz, F . (2019). L- Karnitinin Sitotoksik ve Genotoksik Etkilerinin Allium cepa Kök Ucu Testi ile Değerlendirilmesi . Kahramanmaraş Sütçü İmam Üniversitesi Tarım ve Doğa Dergisi , 22 (4) , 650-658 . DOI: 10.18016/