Year 2020, Volume 23 , Issue 2, Pages 527 - 535 2020-04-30

Improving Nutritional Qualities of Tomato Pomace by Pleurotus ostreatus and Phanerochaete chrysosporium Fermentation
Domates Posasının Pleurotus ostreatus ve Phanerochaete chrysosporium Fermentasyonu ile Besleyici Değerinin Artırılması

Sulhattin YASAR [1] , Ramazan TOSUN [2]


In this study, it was aimed to improve nutrient quality by fermenting tomato pomace with Pleurotus ostreatus (P. ostreatus) and Phanerochaete chrysosporium (P. chrysosporium). Tomato pomace was incubated for 21 days at optimized conditions of pH (3.50-5.50), temperature (24-28 oC), moisture content (68% w w-1), aeration (0,25 L min-1) and stirring rates (10 rpm). Three samples taken at each incubation time were chemically analyzed. The results indicated that fermentation with P. ostreatus and P. chrysosporium significanly increased ash content by 25 and 21%, crude protein content by 16 and 30%, respectively (P<0.05). Fermentation with P. ostreatus decreased ether extract content from 7.22% to 0.29% at 21th day (P<0.05). However, there was an increase of ether extract content with P. chrysosporium fermentation (from 7.22 to 11.62% at 21 day) (P<0.05). Crude fiber of tomato pomace with P. chrysosporium were reduced by 64% (P<0.05). Both fungal fermentations reduced total reducing sugar content by about 30% (P<0.05). Fermentation with P. ostreatus and P. chrysosporium significantly changed tannin and pectin levels (P<0.05). As a result, fungal fermentation caused to nutritionally enriched tomato pomace with added active compounds, and could be used as functional feed in animal nutrition.

Bu çalışmada, domates posasını Pleurotus ostreatus (P. ostreatus) ve Phanerochaete chrysosporium (P. chrysosporium) ile fermente ederek besin madde kalitesini artırmak amaçlanmıştır. Domates posası, optimize edilmiş pH (3.50-5.50), sıcaklık (24-28 oC), nem içeriği (%68), havalandırma (0.25 L dk-1) ve karıştırma hızı (10 rpm) koşullarında 21 gün inkubasyona bırakılmıştır. Fungal fermentasyon sonuçlarına göre ham kül içeriği %21-25 oranında ve ham protein içeriği ise %16-30 oranında artmıştır (P<0.05). P. ostreatus ile fermentasyonda, 21. günde ham yağ içeriği %7.22’den %0.29’a önemli derecede azalmıştır (P<0.05). Ancak ham yağ içeriği P. chrysosporium ile yürütülen fermentasyonda artmıştır (%7.22’den %11.62’e kadar artış) (P<0.05). P. chrysosporium ile yürütülen fermentasyonda ham selüloz içeriği yaklaşık %64 oranında azalmıştır (P<0.05). Domates posasının her iki fungal fermentasyonunda da toplam redükte şeker içeriği yaklaşık %30’a kadar düşmüştür (P<0.05). Tanin ve pektin içeriği her iki fungal fermentasyonunda da önemli derecede değişmiştir (P<0.05). Sonuç olarak, fungal fermentasyonu domates posasının besleyici değerinin artmasına, biyolojik olarak fonksiyonel bileşiklerin oluşmasına sebep olmuştur.

  • Abdollahzadeh F, Pirmohammadi R, Fatehi F,Bernousi I 2010. Effect of feeding ensiled mixed tomato and apple pomace on performance of holstein dairy cows.Slovak Journal of Animal Science,43(1): 31-35.
  • Afşin M 2010. Production of protease from Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 14580 with the method of solid state fermentation. Dicle Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Biyoloji Anabilimdalı, Yüksek Lisans Tezi.
  • Agbo NW, Prah CD 2014. Evaluation of fermentation period on the proximate composition and tannin concentration of sheanut (Vitellaria paradoxa) meal.Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology Research, 4(1): 21-27.
  • Ajila CM, Brar SK, Verma M, Tyagi RD, Valéro JR 2011. Solid-state fermentation of apple pomace using Phanerocheate chrysosporium – Liberation and extraction of phenolic antioxidants. Food Chemistry, 126(3): 1071-1080.
  • AOAC 2005. Official Methods of Analysis.18th ed., https://www.aoac.org/AOAC_Prod_Imis/AOAC_Member/Default.aspx?WebsiteKey=2e25ab5a-1f6d-4d78-a498-19b9763d11b4&hkey=8fc2171a-6051-4e64-a928-5c47dfa25797.
  • Assi JA, King AJ 2008. Manganese amendment and Pleurotus ostreatus treatment to convert tomato pomace for inclusion in poultry feed, Poultry Science, 87(9):1889-1896.
  • Azza AM, El-Safy SF, Eman HFA 2013. Improvement of nutritional quality and antioxidant activities of fermented wastes by Saccharomyces cervisiae, Bacillus subtilis and Pleurotus salmoneo-stramineus.3rd International Conference on Biotechnology and Its Applications in Botany and Microbiology, 17-18 April 2018, Cairo, Egypt.
  • Bennamoun L, Hiligsmann S, Dakhmouche S, Ait-Kaki A, Labbani FK, Nouadri T, Meraihi Z, Turchetti B, Buzzini P, Thonart P 2016. Production and properties of a thermostable, ph stable exo-polygalacturonase using Aureobasidium pullulans ısolated from Saharan Soil of Algeria grown on tomato pomace.Foods,5(4): E72.
  • Chemesova II, Chizhikov DV 2004. Determination of tannin content in rhizomes of Comarum palustre L. and its tincture by spectrophotometric method.Rastitel'nye Resursy, 40: 122-130.
  • Das DVM, Weeks G 1979. Effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids on the growth and differentiation of the cellular slime mold, Dictyostelium discoideum. Experimental Cell Research,118(2): 237–243.
  • Díaz-Godínez G 2012. Production of laccases by Pleurotus ostreatus in solid-state and submerged fermentation. Biotechnology of Microbial Enzymes, Nova Science Publishers, A: 99-121.
  • Ergun SO, Urek RO 2017. Production of ligninolytic enzymes by solid state fermentation using Pleurotus ostreatus. Annals of Agrarian Science, 15(2): 273-277.
  • Freixo MR, Karmali A, Arteiro JM 2008. Production and chromatographic behavior of polygalacturonase from Pleurotus ostreatus on immobilized metal chelates.Process Biochemistry,43(5):531-539.
  • Freixo MR, Karmali A, Arteiro JM 2012. Production, purification and characterization of laccase from Pleurotus ostreatus grown on tomato pomace. World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology, 28(1): 245–254.
  • Gassara F, Brar SK, Tyagi RD, Verma M, Surampalli RY 2010. Screening of agro-industrial wastes to produce ligninolytic enzymes by Phanerochaete chrysosporium.Biochemical Engineering Journal,49(3):388-394.
  • Goyal M, Soni G 2011. Production and characterization of cellulolytic enzymes by Pleurotus florida.Mycosphere, 2(3): 249–254.
  • Iandolo D, Piscitelli A, Sannia G, Faraco V 2011. Enzyme production by solid substrate fermentation of Pleurotus ostreatus and Trametes versicolor on tomato pomace.Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 163(1): 40-51.
  • Knoblich M, Anderson B, Latshaw D 2005. Analyses of tomato peel and seed by products and their use as a source of carotenoids.Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture,85: 1166–1170.
  • Kurt S, Buyukalaca S 2010. Yield performances and changes in enzyme activities of Pleurotus spp. (P. ostreatus and P. sajor-caju) cultivated on different agricultural wastes, Bioresource Technology, 101(9): 3164-3169.
  • Lateef A, Oloke JK, Kana EBG, Oyeniyi SO, Onifade OR, Oyeleye AO, Oladosu OC, Oyelami AO 2008. Improving the quality of agro-wastes by solid-state fermentation: enhanced antioxidant activities and nutritional qualities.World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 24(10): 2369–2374.
  • Lavecchia R, Zuorro A 2008. Improved lycopene extraction from tomato peels using cell-wall degrading enzymes.European Food Research and Technology,228,153-158.
  • Liu J, Cai Y, Liao X, Huang Q, Hao Z, Hu M, Zhang D, Li Z 2013. Efficiency of laccase roduction in a 65-L air-lift reactor for potential green industrial and environmental application.Journal of Cleaner Production,39: 154-160.
  • Mirzaei-Aghsaghali A, Maheri-Sis N 2008. Nutritive value of some agro-industrial by-products for ruminants.World Journal of Zoology,3(2): 40-46.
  • Mukherjee R, Chakraborty R, Dutta A 2016. Role of fermentation in improving nutritional quality of soybean meal a review.Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences,29(11):1523-1529.
  • Özşölen F 2010.Production of ligninolytic enzymes with solid state fermentation.(Master's Thesis), Eskişehir Osmangazi Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü Biyoloji Anabilim Dalı, Yüksek Lisans Tezi, 85 sy.
  • Pellinen J, Abuhasan J, Joyce TW, Chang HM 1989. Biological delignification of pulp by Phanerochaete chrysosporium.Journal of Biotechnology, 10(2): 161-170.
  • Raimbault M 1998. General and microbiological aspects of solid substrate fermentation.Electronic Journal of Biotechnology,1(3): 717-732.
  • Rashad MM, Abdou HM, Mahmoud AE,Nooman MU 2009. Nutritional analysis and enzyme activities of Pleurotus ostreatus cultivated on citrus limonium and carica papaya wastes.Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences,3(4): 3352-3360.
  • Rashad MM, Abdou HM, Shousha WGH, Ali MM,El-Sayed NN 2010. Purification and characterization of extracellular polygalacturonase from Pleurotus ostreatus using citrus limonium waste.Journal of Applied Science Research, 6(1):81-88.
  • Ravichandran S, Vimala R 2012. Solid state and submerged fermentation for the production of bioactive substances: a comparative study.International Journal of Science and Nature,3(3):480-486.
  • Singhaniaa RR, Patel AK, Soccol CR, Pandey A 2009. Recent advances in solid state fermentation. Biochemical Engineering Journal,44(1): 13–18.SPSS 2013. IBM SPSS Statistics 22.0 for Windows. Armonk, NY.
  • TS ISO 21527-2: 2008. Microbiology of food and animal feeding stuffs — Horizontal method for the enumeration of yeasts and moulds — Part 2: Colony count technique in products with water activity less than or equal to 0,95; TS ISO 21527-2: 2008, Avaliable from: https://www.iso.org/standard/38276.html.
  • Verma P, Madamwar D 2002. Production of ligninolytic enzymes for dye decolorization by cocultivation of white-rot fungi Pleurotus ostreatus and Phanerochaete chrysosporium under solid-state fermentation.Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 102(1-6): 109-118.
  • Villas-Boas SG, Esposito E, De Mendonca MM 2003. Bioconversion of apple pomace into a nutritionally enriched substrate by Candida utilis and Pleurotus ostreatus.World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology,19(5):461-467.
  • Wang XP, Zhang WY 1999. Study on the determination and utilization of the pectin in haw.Quarterly of Forest By-Product and Speciality in China,9:13-14.
  • Weiss WP, Frobose DL, Koch ME 1997. Wet tomato pomace ensiled with corn plants for dairy cows.Journal of Dairy Science,80(11): 2896–2900.
  • Yasar S, Tosun R 2018. Nutritional, enzymatic and antioxidant enrichment of apple pomace by fungal fermentations.10. International Animal Science Conference, 25-27 October 2018, Antalya.
  • Yoon LW, Ang TN, Ngoh GC, Chua ASM 2014. Fungal solid-state fermentation and various methods of enhancement in cellulase production.Biomass and Bioenergy,67,319-338.
  • Ziaei N, Molaei S 2010. Evaluation of nutrient digestibility of wet tomato pomace ensiled with wheat straw compared to alfaalfa hay in kermani sheep.Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 9(4): 771-773.
Primary Language en
Subjects Agriculture
Journal Section RESEARCH ARTICLE
Authors

Orcid: 0000-0001-9334-1303
Author: Sulhattin YASAR
Institution: IĞDIR ÜNİVERSİTESİ, IĞDIR ZİRAAT FAKÜLTESİ, ZOOTEKNİ BÖLÜMÜ
Country: Turkey


Orcid: 0000-0002-8209-6362
Author: Ramazan TOSUN (Primary Author)
Institution: IĞDIR ÜNİVERSİTESİ, IĞDIR ZİRAAT FAKÜLTESİ, ZOOTEKNİ BÖLÜMÜ
Country: Turkey


Supporting Institution TÜRKİYE BİLİMSEL VE TEKNOLOJİK ARAŞTIRMA KURUMU (TÜBİTAK) VHAG 1001
Project Number 214O629
Thanks We gratefullly acknowledged the TUBITAK, Turkey for their financial support of the study (VHAG: 214O629 - 1001 project).
Dates

Application Date : October 4, 2019
Acceptance Date : December 3, 2019
Publication Date : April 30, 2020

APA Yasar, S , Tosun, R . (2020). Improving Nutritional Qualities of Tomato Pomace by Pleurotus ostreatus and Phanerochaete chrysosporium Fermentation . Kahramanmaraş Sütçü İmam Üniversitesi Tarım ve Doğa Dergisi , 23 (2) , 527-535 . DOI: 10.18016/ksutarimdoga.vi.629347