Year 2020, Volume 23 , Issue 5, Pages 1257 - 1269 2020-10-31

Economic Analysis of Fish Farming in the Northern Region of Iraq
Kuzey Irak Bölgesinde Balık Yetiştiriciliğinin Ekonomik Analizi

Hawkar Taher MAARUF [1] , Cuma AKBAY [2]


In the ’80s, Kuwait operations and the conflict between Iran and Iraq negatively affected the aquaculture and especially fish farming. This study was carried out to analyze fish productions and advancements in its development in the Northern Region of Iraq. Also, this study was aiming at obtaining the estimates of the production function for fish production and total income. The study involved 60 farms. Data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics, variance analysis and multiple regression. According to results, the benefit-cost ratio was 1.8, and it indicates that fish farming in the region was profitable. Results demonstrated that farmers’ age, educational status and fish farming experience, size and number of ponds, total fingerlings stocked, age of ponds, time of fish production, the weight of the sold-fish, fish mortality rate, and price of fish sale have statistically significant effects on fish production. According to the estimated production function, if all inputs are increased by 1%, then output increases by only 0.92%.
Irak’ta 1980’lerde meydana gelen İran-Irak savaşı ve Kuveyt operasyonları nedeniyle su ürünleri sektörü ve özellikle balık yetiştiriciliği olumsuz yönde etkilenmiştir. Bu çalışmanın amacı Irak’ın kuzey bölgesinde yer alan Erbil ilçesinde balık üretimi ve üretimde etkili olan faktörleri analiz etmektir. Ayrıca, araştırmada işletmelerin balık üretim maliyetleri ve balık üretim fonksiyonu tahmin edilecektir. Araştırmada 60 işletmeden elde edilen veriler kullanılmıştır. Veriler tanımlayıcı istatistikler, varyans analizi ve çoklu regresyon kullanılarak analiz edilmiştir. Araştırma sonuçlarına göre, işletmelerde fayda-masraf oranı 1,8 olarak tespit edilmiştir. Bu da bölgede balık yetiştiriciliğinin karlı olduğunu göstermektedir. Elde edilen sonuçlara göre, balık üretiminde etkili faktörler; üretici yaşı, eğitim durumu, deneyim, üretim alanı, gölet sayısı, toplam balık sayısı, proje zamanı, balık üretim zamanı, balık ağırlığı, balık ölüm oranı ve balık satış fiyatlarıdır. Tahmin edilen üretim fonksiyonu sonuçlarına göre, tüm girdiler %1 artırılırsa, balık üretim miktarı sadece % 0.92 artmaktadır.
  • Abdulkadri A, Ajibefun I, Ogundare F 1999. Technical efficiency of small scale oil palm processors in Nigeria. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 81(5): 1328.
  • Adams WM, Sandbrook C 2013. Conservation, evidence and policy. Oryx, 47(3): 329-335.
  • Agboola W 2011. Improving fish farming productivity towards achieving food security in Osun State, Nigeria: A socioeconomic analysis. Annals of Biological Research 2(3): 62-74.
  • Ahmed N, Garnett ST 2011. Integrated rice-fish farming in Bangladesh: meeting the challenges of food security. Food Security 3(1): 81-92.
  • Ajibefun IA, Battese GE, Daramola AG 2002. Determinants of technical efficiency in smallholder food crop farming: application of stochastic frontier production function. Quarterly Journal of International Agriculture 41(3): 225-240.
  • Al-Taee A, Khamees N, Al-Shammari N 2017. Vibrio Species Isolated from Farmed Fish in Basra City in Iraq. J. Aquaculture Research Development 8(2): 1-4.
  • Akbay C, Azeez JA 2016. Factors affecting on mortality rate in the broiler chicken production farms in Erbil, Iraq. Pakistan Journal of Food Sciences, 26(3): 119-128.
  • Akbay C, Meral Y, Yılmaz Hİ, Gözek S 2013. Analysis of households’ fishery product consumption in Turkey. KSU Journal of Natural Science, 16(3): 1-7.
  • Anonym 2017. Erbil Governorate http://www. hawlergov.org/en/page.php. (Accessed date: 28 June 2017)
  • Asamoah EK, Ewusie Nunoo FK, Osei-Asare YB, Addo S, Sumaila UR 2012. A production function analysis of pond aquaculture in Southern Ghana. Aquaculture Economics & Management 16(3): 183-201.
  • Asmah R 2008. Development potential and financial viability of fish farming in Ghana.
  • Aydin A, Kocaman EM, Dagdemir V 2014. Comparative Structural and Economic Analysis of Trout Farms in Antalya Province, Turkey. Journal of Academic Documents for Fisheries and Aquaculture 1(2): 41-47.
  • Barbier EB, Hacker SD, Kennedy C, Koch EW, Stier AC, Silliman BR 2011.The value of estuarine and coastal ecosystem services. Ecological monographs 81(2): 169-193.
  • Bene C, Steel E, Luadia BK, GordonA 2009. Fish as the “bank in the water”–Evidence from chronic-poor communities in Congo. Food policy 34(1): 108-118.
  • Bennett A, PatilP, Kleisner K, Rader D, Virdin J, Basurto X 2018. Contribution of fisheries to food and nutrition security: Current knowledge, policy, and research. NI Report 18-02. Duke University, “http:// nicholasinstitute.duke.edu /publication”. (Accessed date: 10 January 2020)
  • Bosma RH, Verdegem MC 2011. Sustainable aquaculture in ponds: principles, practices and limits. Livestock Science 139(1): 58-68.
  • Bozoglu M, Ceyhan V 2009. Cost and profitability analysis for trout and sea bass production in the Black Sea, Turkey. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances 8(2): 217-222.
  • Cook CN, Hockings M, Carter R 2010. Conservation in the dark? The information used to support management decisions. Frontiers in Ecology and the Env. 8(4): 181-186.
  • Cooke SJ, Wesch S, Donaldson LA, Wilson ADM, Haddaway NR 2017. A call for evidence-Based conservation and management of fisheries and aquatic resources, Fisheries 42(3): 143-149.
  • Crentsil C, Ukpong IG 2014. Production function analysis of fish production in Amansie-West District of Ghana, West Africa. American Journal of Experimental Agriculture 4(7): 817-835.
  • Drolet D, Locke A, Lewis MA, Davidson J 2015. Evidence‐based tool surpasses expert opinion in predicting probability of eradication of aquatic nonindigenous species. Ecological Applications 25(2): 441-450.
  • Dudgeon D, Arthington AH, Gessner MO, Kawabata ZI, Knowler DJ, Leveque C, Naiman RJ, Prieur-Richard AH, Soto D, Stiassny ML 2006. Freshwater biodiversity: importance, threats, status and conservation challenges. Biological Reviews 81(2): 163-182.
  • El Gamal AR 2001. Status and development trends of aquaculture in the Near East. ICLARM, Regional Research Center, Egypt. “http://www.fao.org/ 3/ab412e/ab412e22.htm” (Accessed date: 28 June 2017)
  • FAO 2006. State of world aquaculture: 2006. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper. No. 500. Rome, FAO. “www.fao.org/docrep/009/a0874e/a0874e00.htm” (Accessed date: 28 June 2017).
  • FAO 2020. Universal software for fishery statistical time series. “http://www.fao.org/fishery/country sector/naso_iraq/en” (Accessed date: 05 January 2020)
  • Fazey I, Salisbury JG, Lindenmayer DB, Maindonald J, Douglas R 2004. Can methods applied in medicine be used to summarize and disseminate conservation research? Environmental Conservation 31(3): 190-198.
  • Grafton RQ 2010. Adaptation to climate change in marine capture fisheries. Marine Policy 34(3): 606-615.
  • Gray JS 1997. Marine biodiversity: patterns, threats and conservation needs. Biodiversity & Conservation 6(1): 153-175.
  • Holmlund CM, Hammer M 1999. Ecosystem services generated by fish populations. Ecological economics 29(2): 253-268.
  • Iruo FA, Onyeneke RU, Eze CC, Uwadoka C, Igberi CO 2018. Economics of smallholder fish farming to poverty alleviation in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. Turk. J. Fish. & Aquat. Sci. 19(4): 313-329.
  • Janssen K, Paul B, Mathieu B, Hans K 2017. Derivation of economic values for production traits in aquaculture species. Genetics Selection Evolution 49(5): 1-13.
  • Kareem R, Dipeolu A, Aromolaran A, Williams S 2008. Economic efficiency in fish farming: hope for agro-allied industries in Niagara. Chinese Journal of Oceanology and limnology 26(1): 104-115.
  • Karim M, Ullah H, Castine S, Islam MM, Keus HJ, Kunda M, Thilsted SH, Phillips M 2017. Carp–mola productivity and fish consumption in small-scale homestead aquaculture in Bangladesh. Aquaculture International 25(2): 867-879.
  • Khan SB, Khan J, Khan N 2018. Economic Analysis of Per Acre Carp Fish Farm Production in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Journal of Poverty, Investment and Development, 41: 9-15.
  • Kitessa SM, Abeywardena M, Wijesundera C, Nichols PD 2014. DHA-containing oilseed: a timely solution for the sustainability issues surrounding fish oil sources of the health-benefitting long-chain omega-3 oils. Nutrients 6(5): 2035-2058.
  • Kitto M, Tabish M 2004. Aquaculture and food security in Iraq. Aquaculture Asia 9(4): 31-31.
  • Kleyn J, Arashi M, Bekker A, Millard S 2017. Preliminary testing of the Cobb–Douglas production function and related inferential issues. Communications in Statistics-Simulation and Computation 46(1): 469-488.
  • Lasner T, Brinker A, Nielsen R, Rad F 2017. Establishing a benchmarking for fish farming–Profitability, productivity and energy efficiency of German, Danish and Turkish rainbow trout grow‐out systems. Aquaculture Research 48(6): 3134-3148.
  • Lucas JS, Southgate PC 2012. Aquaculture: Farming aquatic animals and plants. John Wiley & Sons.
  • Lynch AJ, Cooke SJ, Deines AM, Bower SD, Bunnell DB, Cowx IG, Nguyen VM, Nohner J, Phouthavong K, Riley B 2016. The social, economic, and environmental importance of inland fish and fisheries. Environmental Reviews 24(2): 115-121.
  • Milner-Gulland E, Fisher M, Browne S, Redford KH, Spencer M, Sutherland WJ 2010. Do we need to develop a more relevant conservation literature? Oryx 44(1): 1.
  • Ngozi MM, Chinonso EN 2013. Economic Analysis of Broiler Production (A Case Study of Orumba South LGA of Anambra State, Nigeria).
  • Obeed Al-Azawi AA, Ward FA 2017. Groundwater use and policy options for sustainable management in Southern Iraq. International Journal of Water Resources Development 33(4): 628-648.
  • Ogundari K, Ojo S 2009. An examination of income generation potential of aquaculture farms in alleviating household poverty: estimation and policy implications from Nigeria. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 9(1):39-45.
  • Olawumi A, Dipeolu A, Bamiro O 2010. Economic analysis of homestead fish production in Ogun state Nigeria. Journal of Human Ecology 31(1): 13-17.
  • Omonona B, Udoh E, Akinlade R 2006. Determinants of technical efficiency in urban food crop production in Ibadan Metropolis, Oyo State, Nigeria. Journal of agricultural & food information 7(1): 43-55.
  • Osawe OW, Adeqeye A, Omonona BT 2008. Technical Efficiency of Small Scale Farmers: An Application of the Stochastic Frontier Production Function on Fish Farmers in Ibadan Metropolis. “https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1819042” (Accessed date: 28 June 2017)
  • Oyakhilomen O, Murtala MO, Abraham F, Kwagyang SM 2016. Technical Efficiency of Catfish Farming in Alimosho Local Government Area of Lagos State, Nigeria: a Gender Perspective. Agricultura Tropica Et. Subtropica 49(1): 45-49.
  • Papka P 1993. Conservation: Some search Areas for Policy in Nigeria. FORMECU, Nigeria.
  • Pauly D, Froese R 2012. Comments on FAO's State of Fisheries and Aquaculture, or ‘SOFIA 2010’. Marine Policy 36(3): 746-752.
  • Phu TM, Phuong NT, Scippo ML, Dalsgaard A 2015. Quality of antimicrobial products used in striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) aquaculture in Vietnam. PloS one 10(4): e0124267.
  • Pillay TVR 1990. Aquaculture: principles and practices. Fishing News Books.
  • Pillay TVR, Kutty MN 2005. Aquaculture: principle and practices. Second Edition, Blackwell Publishing Ltd. UK
  • Postel S, Carpenter S 1997. Freshwater ecosystem services. Nature’s services: Societal dependence on natural ecosystems 195.
  • Prellezo R, Accadia P, Andersen JL, Andersen BS, Buisman E, Little A, Nielsen JR, Poos JJ, Powell J, Röckmann C 2012. A review of EU bio-economic models for fisheries: the value of a diversity of models. Marine Policy 36(2):423-431.
  • Pucher JG 2014. Nutrient flow in improved upland aquaculture systems in Yen Chau, province Son La (Vietnam).PhD. in Agricultural Sciences in the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences at the University of Hohenheim.
  • Pullin AS, Knight TM 2003. Support for decision making in conservation practice: an evidence-based approach. Journal for Nature Conservation 11(2): 83-90.
  • Pullin AS, Knight TM, Stone DA, Charman K 2004. Do conservation managers use scientific evidence to support their decision-making? Biological conservation 119(2): 245-252.
  • Rahman MJ, Hossain A, Al Asif A, Haq E, Chwakravorty P, Rahman M 2017. Economics of fish production in paddy fields in Bangladesh. Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research 3(3): 379-390.
  • Seggel A, De Young C 2016. Climate change implications for fisheries and aquaculture. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Circular (FAO) eng no. 1122.
  • Sharma T, Dhakal SC, Kattel RR, Gharti K, Lamichhane J 2018. Economics of fish production at Chitwan district, Nepal. Journal of Agriculture and Natural Resources 1(1): 21-31.
  • Tacon AG, Metian M 2013. Fish matters: importance of aquatic foods in human nutrition and global food supply. Reviews in Fisheries Science 21(1): 22-38.
  • Toma N, Mohiuddin M, Alam M, Suravi M 2015. An economic study of small-scale tilapia fish farming in Mymensingh district of Bangladesh.Journal of Agricultural Economics and Rural Development 2(3): 050-053.
  • Tunde AB, Kuton M, Oladipo AA and Olasunkanmi LH 2015. Economic analyze of costs and return of fish farming in Saki-East Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria. Journal of Aquaculture Research & Development 6(2): 1.
  • Wambua MM 2018. A cost–benefit analysis of the fish farming enterprise productivity program project in Kenya. The case of implementation of the aquaculture development component in Meru County. United Nations University Fisheries Training Programme, Iceland [final project]. http://www.unuftp.is/static/fellows/document/ moses15prf.pdf (Accessed date: 05 January 2017)
  • Wang X, Sato T, Xing B and Tao S 2005. Health risks of heavy metals to the general public in Tianjin, China via consumption of vegetables and fish. Science of the Total Environment 350(1): 28-37.
Primary Language en
Subjects Agriculture
Journal Section RESEARCH ARTICLE
Authors

Orcid: 0000-0003-4112-4192
Author: Hawkar Taher MAARUF
Institution: Kahramanmaras Sütcü Imam University
Country: Turkey


Orcid: 0000-0001-7673-7584
Author: Cuma AKBAY (Primary Author)
Institution: KAHRAMANMARAŞ SÜTÇÜ İMAM ÜNİVERSİTESİ
Country: Turkey


Thanks This study is summarized from the results obtained from the first author’s master thesis.
Dates

Application Date : February 21, 2020
Acceptance Date : April 17, 2020
Publication Date : October 31, 2020

APA Maaruf, H , Akbay, C . (2020). Economic Analysis of Fish Farming in the Northern Region of Iraq . Kahramanmaraş Sütçü İmam Üniversitesi Tarım ve Doğa Dergisi , 23 (5) , 1257-1269 . DOI: 10.18016/ksutarimdoga.vi.692756