Year 2020, Volume 23 , Issue 6, Pages 1561 - 1568 2020-12-31

Assessment of Hg in Holothuria (Mertensiothuria) leucospilota (Brandt, 1835) from Karachi coasts, Pakistan
Pakistan Karachi sahillerinden Holothuria (Mertensiothuria) leucospilota türünde (Brandt, 1835) Hg değerlendirmesi

Quratulan AHMED [1] , Levent BAT [2]


The aim of the present study was to determine mercury levels in sediments, surface sea water and Holothuria leucospilota muscles and skin in two selected sites from Karachi coast. Samples were collected during two seasons south-west monsoon (August-September) and north-east monsoon (December-January). The concentrations of Hg in sediment ranged from 0.0012 to 0.0023 mg kg-1, and in surface water from 0.00018 to 0.00034 (µg l-1), while in muscle and skin of black sea cucumber ranged from LOD to 0.0034 and LOD to 0.0046 mg kg-1 dry wt., respectively. Moreover, Hg showed the highest accumulation rate in the skin tissue with BSAF values ranging between 2 in Buleji and 2.69 in Sunehri at north-east monsoon. The BSAF values in the muscles of the black sea cucumber ranged from 1.44 at south-west monsoon in Buleji to 1.63 at north-east monsoon in Sunehri, respectively. Since BSAF value is higher than 2 on the skin of sea cucumber, it is evaluated as macro-concentrator. However, the BSAF value varies between 1 and 2 in muscle, it has been determined as micro-concentrator. Hg in the black sea cucumbers from Buleji and Sunehri sites of the Karachi coasts is “very bio-accumulative” (BCF > 5000) during both sampling seasons.
Bu çalışmanın amacı, Karachi kıyısında seçilen iki bölgede sediment, yüzey deniz suyu ve Holothuria leucospilota kasları ve derisindeki cıva seviyelerini belirlemektir. Örnekler iki mevsim güney-batı musonu (Ağustos-Eylül) ve kuzey-doğu musonu (Aralık-Ocak) boyunca toplanmıştır. Sediment içindeki Hg konsantrasyonları kuru ağırlık olarak 0,0012 ila 0,0023 mg kg-1 ve yüzey suyunda 0,00018 ila 0,00034 (µg l-1) arasında değişirken, kara deniz hıyarının kas ve derisinde ise LOD değerleri 0,0034 - 0,0046 mg kg-1 arasında değişmektedir. Üstelik, Hg deri dokusunda en yüksek birikim oranını, kuzeydoğu musonunda Buleji'de 2 ile Sunehri'de 2,69 arasında değişen BSAF değerleri ile gösterilmiştir. Kara deniz hıyarı kaslarındaki BSAF değerleri, Buleji'de güneybatı musonda 1,44 ile Sunehri'nde kuzeydoğu musonda 1,63 arasında değişmektedir. Kara deniz hıyarının derisinde BSAF değeri 2'den yüksek olduğu için makro-yoğunlaştırıcı olarak değerlendirilmiştir. Bununla birlikte, BSAF değeri kasta 1 ile 2 arasında değiştiğinden, mikro-yoğunlaştırıcı olarak belirlenmiştir. Karachi kıyılarının Buleji ve Sunehri bölgelerindeki kara deniz hıyarlarında Hg, her iki örnekleme mevsimi boyunca biyo-birikime sahip olduğu görülmüştür (BCF> 5000). 
  • Ahmed Q, Ali QM 2014. Abundance and Distribution of Holothuroidea (Echinodermata) with Emphasis on Heavy Metals Accumulation in Organism and Its Habitat, Project: Higher Education Commission of Pakistan, (Grant No. IPFP/HRD/HEC/1688).
  • Ahmed Q, Ali QM, Bat L 2017. Assessment of heavy metals concentration in Holothurians, sediments and water samples from coastal areas of Pakistan (northern Arabian Sea). Journal of Coastal Life Medicine 5(5): 191-201.
  • Ahmed Q, Bat L, Ali QM 2018) Analysis of mercury (Hg) in four Holothurians species (Phylum-Echinodermata) from Karachi coast-northern Arabian Sea. Aquatic Research 1(2): 55-63.
  • Ahmed Q, Bat L, Ali QM 2019. Determination of mercury (hg) in two sea cucumber species Ohshimella ehrenbergii (Selenka, 1868) and Stolus buccalis (Stimpson, 1855) from the Karachi coast. Pakistan Journal of Marine Sciences 28(1): 55-62.
  • Ahmed Q, Ali QM 2020. Holothurians from Pakistan: New addition of Holothuria (Theelothuria) notabilis (Ludwig, 1875) and rediscovery of Actinocucumis typica (Ludwig, 1875) from the Karachi coast, northern Arabian Sea. Beche-De-Mer information bulletin 40: 40-42.
  • American Public Health Association 1998. Water Environment Federation, Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. Stand Methods, 541.
  • Bat L 2017. The Contamination Status of Heavy Metals in Fish from the Black Sea, Turkey and Potential Risks to Human Health. In: Sezgin, M., Bat, L., Ürkmez, D., Arıcı, E., Öztürk, B. (Eds.) Black Sea Marine Environment: The Turkish Shelf. Turkish Marine Research Foundation (TUDAV), Publication No: 46, Istanbul, TURKEY, 322-418.
  • Bat L, Öztekin A, Şahin F, Arıcı E, Özsandıkçı U 2018. An overview of the Black Sea pollution in Turkey. MedFAR 1(2): 67-86.
  • Bat L, Özkan EY 2019. Heavy Metal Levels in Sediment of the Turkish Black Sea Coast. In I. Management Association (Ed.), Oceanography and Coastal Informatics: Breakthroughs in Research and Practice Hershey, PA: IGI Global 86-107.
  • Bernhard M 1976. Manual of Methods in the Aquatic Environment Research. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper FIRI/T no.158, Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome.
  • Dimitrov SD, Dimitrova NC, Walker JD, Veith GD, Mekenyan OG 2003. Bioconcentration potential predictions based on molecular attributes–an early warning approach for chemicals found in humans, birds, fish and wildlife. QSAR & Combinatorial Science 22(1): 58-68.
  • Eriksson H, Clarke S 2015. Chinese market responses to overexploitation of sharks and sea cucumbers. Biological Conservation 184: 163-173.
  • European Union 2014. Common implementation strategy for the water framework directive (2000/60/EC) Guidance, Document No. 32 on biota monitoring (the implementation of EQS biota) under the water framework directive. EU Technical Report - 2014 – 083.
  • Gao F, Li F, Tan J, Yan J, Sun H 2014. Bacterial community composition in the gut content and ambient sediment of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus revealed by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. PloS one 9(6).
  • Geyer HJ, Rimkus GG, Scheunert I, Kaune A, Schramm KW, Kettrup A, Zeeman M, Muir DCG, Hansen LG, Mackay D 2000. Bioaccumulation and occurrence of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), persistent organic pollutants (POPs), and other organic compounds in fish and other organisms including humans. In Bioaccumulation–New Aspects and Developments. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 1-166.
  • Hashmi MI, Thilakar R, bin Syed Hussein MA, Hoque Z 2014. Determination of seven heavy metals in eight species of Sea Cucumbers. Sci Int 26 (1).
  • Ilias Z 2010. Gamat perairan Malaysia: kepelbagaian spesies dan kegunaannya. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.
  • Keeney DR, Nelson DW 1983. Nitrogen—inorganic forms. Methods of Soil Analysis: Part 2 Chemical and Microbiological Properties 9: 643-698.
  • Kleinow KM, Nichols JW, Hayton WL, McKim JM, Barron MG 2008. Toxicokinetics in fishes. The toxicology of fishes 55-152.
  • MeloniD, Esposito G 2018. Hygienic and commercial issues related to the illegal fishing and processing of sea cucumbers in the Mediterranean: A case study on over-exploitation in Italy between 2015 and 2017. Regional Studies in Marine Science 19: 43-46.
  • Microsoft Corporation 2018. Microsoft Excel. Retrieved from https://office.microsoft.com/excel
  • Moazzam M, Moazzam N 2020. Annotated checklist of sea cucumbers from Pakistan with new records of Holothuria (Theelothuria) hamata (Pearson, 1913) and Stichopus herrmanni (Semper, 1868). Beche-De-Mer information bulletin 40: 32-39.
  • Official Journal of the European Union 2008. Directives Directive 2008/56/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 17 June 2008 establishing a framework for community action in the field of marine environmental policy (Marine Strategy Framework Directive). L 164: 19-40.
  • Pangestuti R, Arifin Z 2018. Medicinal and health benefit effects of functional sea cucumbers. Journal of traditional and complementary medicine 8 (3): 341-351.
  • Purcell SW, Samyn Y, Conand C 2012. Commercially important sea cucumbers of the world. FAO Species Catalogue for Fishery Purposes No. 6. Rome, FAO.
  • Regulation EC 1999. No 1907/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 December 2006 concerning the Registration. Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH), establishing a European Chemicals Agency, amending Directive 45: 1-849.
  • Roberts D, Moore HM, Berges J, Patching JW, Carton MW, Eardly DF 2001. Sediment distribution, hydrolytic enzyme profiles and bacterial activities in the guts of Oneirophanta mutabilis, Psychropotes longicauda and Pseudostichopus villosus: what do they tell us about digestive strategies of abyssal holothurians? Progress in Oceanography 50(1-4): 443-458.
  • Sloan NA 1979. Microhabitat and resource utilization in cryptic rocky intertidal echinoderms at Aldabra Atoll, Seychelles. Marine Biology 54(3): 269-279.
  • SPSS 2012. IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 21.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.
  • USEPA 1999. United State Environmental Protection Agency. SW – Method 3050B. Standard Operating Procedure for the digestion of soil sediment samples using a hotplate/beaker digestion technique, Chicago.
  • Yu Z, Hu C, Zhou Y, Li H, Peng P 2012. Survival and growth of the sea cucumber Holothuria leucospilota Brandt: a comparison between suspended and bottom cultures in a subtropical fish farm during summer. Aquaculture Research 44 (1): 114-124.
Primary Language en
Subjects Agriculture
Journal Section RESEARCH ARTICLE
Authors

Orcid: 0000-0002-7597-2483
Author: Quratulan AHMED
Institution: The Marine Reference Collection and Resource Centre, University of Karachi,
Country: Pakistan


Orcid: 0000-0002-2289-6691
Author: Levent BAT (Primary Author)
Institution: Sinop Üniversitesi Su Ürünleri Fakültesi Su Ürünleri Temel Bilimler Bölümü
Country: Turkey


Dates

Application Date : April 7, 2020
Acceptance Date : May 21, 2020
Publication Date : December 31, 2020

APA Ahmed, Q , Bat, L . (2020). Assessment of Hg in Holothuria (Mertensiothuria) leucospilota (Brandt, 1835) from Karachi coasts, Pakistan . Kahramanmaraş Sütçü İmam Üniversitesi Tarım ve Doğa Dergisi , 23 (6) , 1561-1568 . DOI: 10.18016/ksutarimdoga.vi.715683