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Determination of Crop Evapotranspiration and Single Crop Coefficients of Maize Using by a Weighing Lysimeter in Mediterranean Region in Turkey

Yıl 2022, Cilt 25, Sayı 4, 890 - 900, 31.08.2022
https://doi.org/10.18016/ksutarimdoga.vi.802192

Öz

Today, accurate irrigation approaches are of great importance due to climate change and a decrease in water resources. FAO methodology based on reference evapotranspiration (ET0) and crop coefficients (Kc) are commonly used worldwide to determine crop water requirements (ETc). Kc values of different plants for different areas can be taken from FAO-56 and FAO-24. However, crop coefficients must be determined or calibrated for every relevant region because the climate conditions in the field and surrounding conditions may not be similar to the standard conditions. For this purpose, what crop evapotranspiration and crop coefficients would be in the case of timely (first crop) and late sowing (second crop) of maize were investigated in this study in Adana where the Mediterranean climate characteristics are prevalent during 2012 and 2013 years. A weighing lysimeter was used to obtain ETc and Kc of maize. ET0 was calculated using the FAO-56 Penman-Monteith (PM56) method. The results showed that the duration of initial, development, mid-season, and end-season growth stages for first crop maize was 22, 26, 43, and 37 days totaling 128 days, and for second crop maize, it was 14, 24, 42, and 38 days totaling 118 days. The ETc value of the second crop maize was 14% higher than that value of the first crop maize. The mean Kc values were 0.74, 0.92, 1.63, and 0.42 at the initial, development, mid-season, and end-season growth stages for the first crop maize, whereas they were determined as 0.46, 0.89, 1.68, and 0.92, respectively for the second crop maize.

Kaynakça

  • Abedinpour M 2015. Evaluation of Growth-Stage-Specific Crop Coefficients of Maize Using Weighing Lysimeter. Soil and Water Research 10(2):99-104.
  • Allen RG, Pereira LS, Raes D, Smith M 1998. Crop Evapotranspiration. Guidelines for Computing Crop Water Requirements. Irrigation and Drainage Paper No. 56, FAO, Rome, Italy, 300 p.
  • Allen RG, Walter IA, Elliott R, Howell T, Itenfusi D, Jensen M 2005. The ASCE Standardized Reference Evapotranspiration Equation. ASCE-EWRI Task Committee Report, 59 p.
  • Anonymous 2020. Ürün Masaları Mısır Bülteni. https://www.tarimorman. gov.tr/BUGEM/Belgeler/ M%C4%B0LL%C4%B0%20TARIM/MISIR%20KASIM%20B%C3%9 CLTEN%C4%B0.pdf.
  • Doorenbos J, Pruitt WO 1984. Guidelines for Predicting Crop Water Requirements. Irrigation and Drainage Paper No. 24, FAO, Rome, Italy, 144 p.
  • Güzel N 1982. Fertility of Soils. Notes of Laboratory Applications. University of Çukurova, Faculty of Agriculture. Publication Number 165, Adana, 38 p.
  • Hizalan E, Ünal H 1966. Important Chemical Analysis of Soils. University of Ankara, Faculty of Agriculture Publication Number 278, 885 p.
  • Howell TA, McCormic LR, Phene CJ 1985. Design and Installation of Large Weighing Lysimeters. Transactions of the ASAE, 28(1):106-112.
  • Howell TA, Steiner JL, Schneider AD, Evett SR, Tolk JA 1997. Seasonal and Maximum Daily Evapotranspiration of Irrigated Winter Wheat, Sorghum and Corn: Southern High Plains. Transactions of the ASAE 40:623-634.
  • Howell TA, Talk JA, Schneider AD, Evett SR 1998. Evapotranspiration, Yield and Water Use Efficiency of Corn Hybrids Differing in Maturity. Agronomy Journal 90(1): 3-9.
  • Howell TA, Evett SR, Tolk JA, Copeland KS, Colaizzi PD,Gowda PH 2008. Evapotranspiration of Corn and Forage Sorghum for Silage. World Enviromental and Water Resources Congress, Ahupua’a.
  • Islam MS, Hossain MA 2010. Determination of Crop Coefficient of Hybrid Maize by Lysimeter Study. Bangladesh Journal of Agricultural Research 35(1): 77-82.
  • Kanber R, Ünlü M, Koç DL, Tekin S, Kapur B 2007. Bitki Su Tüketiminin Ölçümünde ve Kestiriminde Kullanılan Kimi Yöntemler. Türk Cumhuriyetleri Sulama Suyu Yönetimi Çalıştayı 12-14 Eylül 2007, Toprak, Gübre ve Su Kaynakları Araştırma Enstitüsü, Ankara, 31s.
  • Kanber R, Yazar A, Köksal H, Oğuzer V 1992. Evapotranspiration of Grapefruit in Eastern Mediterranean Region of Turkey. Scientia Horticulturae 52(1-2): 53-62.
  • Kang S, Gu B, Du T, Zhang J 2003. Crop Coefficient and Ratio of Transpiration to Evapotranspiration of Winter Wheat and Maize in a Semi-Humid Region. Agricultural Water Management 59:239-254.
  • Kjaersgaard JH, Plauborg F, Mollerup M, Petersen CT, Hansen S 2008. Crop Coefficients for Winter Wheat in a Sub-Humid Climate Regime. Agricultural Water Management 95: 918- 924.
  • Ko J, Piccinni G, Marek T, Howell T 2009. Determination of Growth-Stage-Specific Crop Coefficients (Kc) of Cotton and Wheat. Agricultural Water Management 96(12):1691-1697.
  • Kuo SF, Ho SS, Liu CW 2006. Estimation Irrigation Water Requirements with Derived Crop Coefficients for Upland and Paddy Crops in Chinana Irrigation Association, Taiwan. Agricultural Water Management 82: 433-451.
  • Liu Y, Luo Y 2010. A Consolidated Evaluation of the FAO-56 Dual Crop Coefficient Approach using the Lysimeter Data in the North China Plain. Agricultural Water Management 97(1): 31-40.
  • López-Urrea R, De Santa M, Olalla F, Montoro A, López-Fuster P 2009. Single and Dual Crop Coefficients and Water Requirements for Onion (Allium cepa L.) under Semiarid Conditions. Agricultural Water Manageöent 96:1031–1036.
  • Malek A, Sepaskhah AR 1981. Evaluation of Advection in the Badjgah Area. Iranian Journal of Agriculture Science 1(1-4):29-44.
  • Mehta R, Pandey V 2015. Reference Evapotranspiration (ETo) and Crop Water Requirement (ETc) of Wheat and Maize in Gujarat. Journal of Agrometeorology 17 (1):107-113.
  • MGM, 2019. Meteoroloji Genel Müdürlüğü Kayıtları. http://www.mgm.gov.tr/mevbis
  • Miranda FR, Gondim RS, Costa CAG 2006. Evapotranspiration and Crop Coefficients for Tabasco Pepper (Capsicum Frutescens L.). Agricultural Water Management 82(1-2):237-246.
  • Mirzaei M, Sohrabi T, Jahanbania H, Faghih M, Teang SL 2011. Evaluation of Evapotranspiration Coefficient and Daily Crop Reference Evapotranspiration in a Semi-Arid Region Based on Field Water Balance and FAO Method. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences 5(12):1850-1856.
  • Musick JT, Dusek DA 1980. Irrigated Corn Yield Response to Water. Transactions of the ASAE 23(92-98):103.
  • Piccinni G, Ko J, Marek T, Howell T 2009. Determination of Growth Stage-Specific Crop Coefficients (Kc) of Maize and Sorghum. Agricultural Water Management 96:1698-1704.
  • Reddy KC 2015. Development of Crop Coefficient Models of Castor and Maize Crops. European Journal of Agronomy 69:59–62.
  • Shahrokhnia MH, Sepaskhah AR 2013. Single and Dual Crop Coefficients and Crop Evapotranspiration for Wheat and Maize in a Semi-Arid Region. Theoretical and Applied Climatology 114:495-510.
  • Tolk JA, Howell TA, Evett SR 1998. Evapotranspiration and Yield of Corn Grown on Three High Plains Soils. Agronomy Journal 90: 447-454.
  • Tyagi NK, Sharma DK, Luthra SK 2003. Determination of evapotranspiration for maize and berseem clover. Irrigation Science 21:173-181.
  • Ünlü M, 2000. Çukurova Koşullarında Mikrometeorolojik Yöntemlerle Pamuk Su Tüketiminin ve Bitki Katsayılarının Belirlenmesi. Çukurova Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü Tarımsal Yapılar ve Sulama Anabilim Dalı Doktora Tezi, Adana, 106 sy.
  • Ünlü M, Kanber R, Kapur B 2010. Comparison of Soybean Evapotranspiration Measured by Weighing Lysimeter and Bowen Ratio Energy Balance Methods. African Journal of Biotechnology 9(30): 4700-4713.
  • USSL 1954. Diagnosis and Improvement of Saline and Alkali Soils. United States Salinity Laboratory Staff USDA Handbook No.60 United States Department of Agriculture Washington, D.C. 159 p.
  • Vaughan PJ, Trou TJ, Ayars JE 2007. A Processing Method for Weighing Lysimeter Data and Comparison to Micrometeorological ETo Predictions. Agricultural Water Management 88:141-146.
  • Zotarelli L, Dukes MD, Romero CC, Migliaccio KW, Morgan KT 2013. Step by Step Calculation of the Penman-Monteith Evapotranspiration (FAO-56 Method). University of Florida, The Agricultural and Biological Engineering Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, AE459, Gainesville, 10 p.

Türkiye'de Akdeniz Bölgesinde Tartılı Lizimetre Kullanılarak Mısır Su Tüketiminin ve Bitki Katsayılarının Belirlenmesi

Yıl 2022, Cilt 25, Sayı 4, 890 - 900, 31.08.2022
https://doi.org/10.18016/ksutarimdoga.vi.802192

Öz

Günümüzde, iklim değişikliği ve su kaynaklarının azalması sorunları nedeniyle doğru sulama yaklaşımları büyük önem taşımaktadır. Kıyas bitki su tüketimi (ET0) ve bitki katsayılarına (Kc) dayalı FAO metodolojisi, bitki su gereksinimlerini (ETc) belirlemek için dünya genelinde yaygın olarak kullanılmaktadır. Farklı bölgeler için farklı bitkilerin Kc değerleri FAO-56 ve FAO-24'ten alınabilir. Ancak, tarladaki iklim koşulları ile çevre koşulları standart şartlara benzemeyebileceği için her bölge için bitki katsayılarının belirlenmesi ya da kalibre edilmesi gerekir. Bu amaçla, 2012 ve 2013 yıllarında Akdeniz iklimi özelliklerinin hakim olduğu Adana'da yapılan bu çalışmada, zamanında (ilk ürün) ve geç ekilen (ikinci ürün) mısırın bitki su tüketimi ve bitki katsayıları belirlenmiştir. Mısır ETc ve Kc'sini elde etmek için tartılı lizimetre kullanılmıştır. ET0, FAO-56 Penman-Monteith (PM56) yöntemi kullanılarak hesaplanmıştır. Birinci ürün mısırda başlangıç, gelişme, mevsim ortası ve mevsim sonu büyüme dönemleri sırasıyla 22, 26, 43 ve 37 gün, toplamda 128 gün; ikinci ürün mısırda ise, 14, 24, 42 ve 38 gün ve toplamda 118 gün olarak gerçekleşmiştir. İkinci ürün mısırın ETc değeri, birinci ürün mısırın ETc değerinden %14 daha yüksek bulunmuştur. Başlangıç, gelişme, mevsim ortası ve mevsim sonu büyüme dönemlerinde birinci ürün mısır için ortalama Kc değerleri 0.74, 0.92, 1.63 ve 0.42 iken, ikinci ürün için bu değerler sırasıyla 0.46, 0.89, 1.68 ve 0.92 olarak belirlenmiştir.

Kaynakça

  • Abedinpour M 2015. Evaluation of Growth-Stage-Specific Crop Coefficients of Maize Using Weighing Lysimeter. Soil and Water Research 10(2):99-104.
  • Allen RG, Pereira LS, Raes D, Smith M 1998. Crop Evapotranspiration. Guidelines for Computing Crop Water Requirements. Irrigation and Drainage Paper No. 56, FAO, Rome, Italy, 300 p.
  • Allen RG, Walter IA, Elliott R, Howell T, Itenfusi D, Jensen M 2005. The ASCE Standardized Reference Evapotranspiration Equation. ASCE-EWRI Task Committee Report, 59 p.
  • Anonymous 2020. Ürün Masaları Mısır Bülteni. https://www.tarimorman. gov.tr/BUGEM/Belgeler/ M%C4%B0LL%C4%B0%20TARIM/MISIR%20KASIM%20B%C3%9 CLTEN%C4%B0.pdf.
  • Doorenbos J, Pruitt WO 1984. Guidelines for Predicting Crop Water Requirements. Irrigation and Drainage Paper No. 24, FAO, Rome, Italy, 144 p.
  • Güzel N 1982. Fertility of Soils. Notes of Laboratory Applications. University of Çukurova, Faculty of Agriculture. Publication Number 165, Adana, 38 p.
  • Hizalan E, Ünal H 1966. Important Chemical Analysis of Soils. University of Ankara, Faculty of Agriculture Publication Number 278, 885 p.
  • Howell TA, McCormic LR, Phene CJ 1985. Design and Installation of Large Weighing Lysimeters. Transactions of the ASAE, 28(1):106-112.
  • Howell TA, Steiner JL, Schneider AD, Evett SR, Tolk JA 1997. Seasonal and Maximum Daily Evapotranspiration of Irrigated Winter Wheat, Sorghum and Corn: Southern High Plains. Transactions of the ASAE 40:623-634.
  • Howell TA, Talk JA, Schneider AD, Evett SR 1998. Evapotranspiration, Yield and Water Use Efficiency of Corn Hybrids Differing in Maturity. Agronomy Journal 90(1): 3-9.
  • Howell TA, Evett SR, Tolk JA, Copeland KS, Colaizzi PD,Gowda PH 2008. Evapotranspiration of Corn and Forage Sorghum for Silage. World Enviromental and Water Resources Congress, Ahupua’a.
  • Islam MS, Hossain MA 2010. Determination of Crop Coefficient of Hybrid Maize by Lysimeter Study. Bangladesh Journal of Agricultural Research 35(1): 77-82.
  • Kanber R, Ünlü M, Koç DL, Tekin S, Kapur B 2007. Bitki Su Tüketiminin Ölçümünde ve Kestiriminde Kullanılan Kimi Yöntemler. Türk Cumhuriyetleri Sulama Suyu Yönetimi Çalıştayı 12-14 Eylül 2007, Toprak, Gübre ve Su Kaynakları Araştırma Enstitüsü, Ankara, 31s.
  • Kanber R, Yazar A, Köksal H, Oğuzer V 1992. Evapotranspiration of Grapefruit in Eastern Mediterranean Region of Turkey. Scientia Horticulturae 52(1-2): 53-62.
  • Kang S, Gu B, Du T, Zhang J 2003. Crop Coefficient and Ratio of Transpiration to Evapotranspiration of Winter Wheat and Maize in a Semi-Humid Region. Agricultural Water Management 59:239-254.
  • Kjaersgaard JH, Plauborg F, Mollerup M, Petersen CT, Hansen S 2008. Crop Coefficients for Winter Wheat in a Sub-Humid Climate Regime. Agricultural Water Management 95: 918- 924.
  • Ko J, Piccinni G, Marek T, Howell T 2009. Determination of Growth-Stage-Specific Crop Coefficients (Kc) of Cotton and Wheat. Agricultural Water Management 96(12):1691-1697.
  • Kuo SF, Ho SS, Liu CW 2006. Estimation Irrigation Water Requirements with Derived Crop Coefficients for Upland and Paddy Crops in Chinana Irrigation Association, Taiwan. Agricultural Water Management 82: 433-451.
  • Liu Y, Luo Y 2010. A Consolidated Evaluation of the FAO-56 Dual Crop Coefficient Approach using the Lysimeter Data in the North China Plain. Agricultural Water Management 97(1): 31-40.
  • López-Urrea R, De Santa M, Olalla F, Montoro A, López-Fuster P 2009. Single and Dual Crop Coefficients and Water Requirements for Onion (Allium cepa L.) under Semiarid Conditions. Agricultural Water Manageöent 96:1031–1036.
  • Malek A, Sepaskhah AR 1981. Evaluation of Advection in the Badjgah Area. Iranian Journal of Agriculture Science 1(1-4):29-44.
  • Mehta R, Pandey V 2015. Reference Evapotranspiration (ETo) and Crop Water Requirement (ETc) of Wheat and Maize in Gujarat. Journal of Agrometeorology 17 (1):107-113.
  • MGM, 2019. Meteoroloji Genel Müdürlüğü Kayıtları. http://www.mgm.gov.tr/mevbis
  • Miranda FR, Gondim RS, Costa CAG 2006. Evapotranspiration and Crop Coefficients for Tabasco Pepper (Capsicum Frutescens L.). Agricultural Water Management 82(1-2):237-246.
  • Mirzaei M, Sohrabi T, Jahanbania H, Faghih M, Teang SL 2011. Evaluation of Evapotranspiration Coefficient and Daily Crop Reference Evapotranspiration in a Semi-Arid Region Based on Field Water Balance and FAO Method. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences 5(12):1850-1856.
  • Musick JT, Dusek DA 1980. Irrigated Corn Yield Response to Water. Transactions of the ASAE 23(92-98):103.
  • Piccinni G, Ko J, Marek T, Howell T 2009. Determination of Growth Stage-Specific Crop Coefficients (Kc) of Maize and Sorghum. Agricultural Water Management 96:1698-1704.
  • Reddy KC 2015. Development of Crop Coefficient Models of Castor and Maize Crops. European Journal of Agronomy 69:59–62.
  • Shahrokhnia MH, Sepaskhah AR 2013. Single and Dual Crop Coefficients and Crop Evapotranspiration for Wheat and Maize in a Semi-Arid Region. Theoretical and Applied Climatology 114:495-510.
  • Tolk JA, Howell TA, Evett SR 1998. Evapotranspiration and Yield of Corn Grown on Three High Plains Soils. Agronomy Journal 90: 447-454.
  • Tyagi NK, Sharma DK, Luthra SK 2003. Determination of evapotranspiration for maize and berseem clover. Irrigation Science 21:173-181.
  • Ünlü M, 2000. Çukurova Koşullarında Mikrometeorolojik Yöntemlerle Pamuk Su Tüketiminin ve Bitki Katsayılarının Belirlenmesi. Çukurova Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü Tarımsal Yapılar ve Sulama Anabilim Dalı Doktora Tezi, Adana, 106 sy.
  • Ünlü M, Kanber R, Kapur B 2010. Comparison of Soybean Evapotranspiration Measured by Weighing Lysimeter and Bowen Ratio Energy Balance Methods. African Journal of Biotechnology 9(30): 4700-4713.
  • USSL 1954. Diagnosis and Improvement of Saline and Alkali Soils. United States Salinity Laboratory Staff USDA Handbook No.60 United States Department of Agriculture Washington, D.C. 159 p.
  • Vaughan PJ, Trou TJ, Ayars JE 2007. A Processing Method for Weighing Lysimeter Data and Comparison to Micrometeorological ETo Predictions. Agricultural Water Management 88:141-146.
  • Zotarelli L, Dukes MD, Romero CC, Migliaccio KW, Morgan KT 2013. Step by Step Calculation of the Penman-Monteith Evapotranspiration (FAO-56 Method). University of Florida, The Agricultural and Biological Engineering Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, AE459, Gainesville, 10 p.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Ziraat
Bölüm ARAŞTIRMA MAKALESİ (Research Article)
Yazarlar

Deniz Levent KOÇ> (Sorumlu Yazar)
ÇUKUROVA ÜNİVERSİTESİ, ZİRAAT FAKÜLTESİ, TARIMSAL YAPILAR VE SULAMA BÖLÜMÜ
0000-0002-4495-3060
Türkiye


Mustafa ÜNLÜ>
ÇUKUROVA ÜNİVERSİTESİ, ZİRAAT FAKÜLTESİ, TARIMSAL YAPILAR VE SULAMA BÖLÜMÜ
0000-0002-1889-516X
Türkiye


Arife NUR>
ÇUKUROVA ÜNİVERSİTESİ, ZİRAAT FAKÜLTESİ, TARIMSAL YAPILAR VE SULAMA BÖLÜMÜ
0000-0002-5044-2726
Türkiye


Rıza KANBER>
ÇUKUROVA ÜNİVERSİTESİ, ZİRAAT FAKÜLTESİ, TARIMSAL YAPILAR VE SULAMA BÖLÜMÜ
0000-0001-7758-8787
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 31 Ağustos 2022
Başvuru Tarihi 29 Eylül 2020
Kabul Tarihi 23 Ağustos 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2022, Cilt 25, Sayı 4

Kaynak Göster

APA Koç, D. L. , Ünlü, M. , Nur, A. & Kanber, R. (2022). Determination of Crop Evapotranspiration and Single Crop Coefficients of Maize Using by a Weighing Lysimeter in Mediterranean Region in Turkey . Kahramanmaraş Sütçü İmam Üniversitesi Tarım ve Doğa Dergisi , 25 (4) , 890-900 . DOI: 10.18016/ksutarimdoga.vi.802192
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